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Speech Citation Information


Verbally documenting your sources of information gives your speech credibility. When mentioning facts, statistics, or testimony – you must reference not only the source itself, but background information for each source. Your speech should include the appropriate number of sources as outlined in your rubric, and be chosen based off the value it adds to your speech content.


When To Cite:

  • Word-for-word quotes
  • Paraphrasing: restating or summarizing ideas
  • Illustrations, diagrams, or graphs from another source


You do NOT need in the following situations:

  • Reporting your original ideas
  • Discussing common knowledge (ex: the earth revolves around the sun)


How to Cite Your Speech

  Journal  Name of publication  Communication Education
  Periodical  Name of Publication  Scientific American
  Book  Primary author’s name & title  Henry Kissinger – World Order
  Interview  Name of person & credentials  Bill Nye – Science Guy
  Website  Sponsor information  NASA


Additional tips:

  • Cite before stating the information. This will be useful in gaining credibility  and providing current information.
  • Vary the way that you introduce the source. Refrain by beginning each citation with “According to…”
  • Do not use secondary sources. A secondary source occurs when a speaker cites a source that is found within another source.